񡴴 ݬ߻ӿѡ ެ-ế N91

ߡ ߫Ѽѡ 󿽿ᵿ

" (XXX-IV .)"

ٻ

ѡ 10- ""

ѽٮ ..

ѻѽ

ѡ ..

߬ 1994.

ѡ.

滿߫ ߻Ѽ

.

0: ..."ԫӿ ӫ", . "Ҭ",1988 ., .1 "󡴴 ӫ";

1: ǡ , "߬ 󿽿ᵿ", . "߬" 1992 ., I-III

;

2: ..ߴ, "櫬", . "Ҭ",1984 .;

3: ..,..ի-, ӿ "忺 ѽ Ѯ" -

"Žԫ,ӿԫѽ", ." " 1993 .;

4: ӫ. ..ӫ߬, "ԫӿ ǡԿ ", . , 1947

.;

5: ߿ .., " .", ., 1972, .68;

6: .ҿ ӪѴ, "ѡ Ѯ "⿻ԫ ӡ", 1953

.

7: Žԫ, "ūԿ ", ߬ ӻ,

III, , 1863 ., .284 ;

8: Ӭ ., ءѽ . ߫. 2- ., .20, .193, 555, 643; .23 .92,

643.

ӿ ỿ᡿ ߡټ ԫ Ӽᵿ 󽴽 N.0.

桫߫ Ѽ . ӿ Ѻ ߡ߫ ӫѡ ӿ

߻᡿ ԫ .

 ѫ߻ӿ ᡡټ, ԫ ߫ ,

󿽿ᵿ ӫ὿ ߬

޿ Ѽѡ: ߡ II . ..

ԫӿ I . .. ūԫ ߯ ԫӿ Ѯ

ѵ Ѯ ӿԫ ѽ ޿ ݻտ: 1) ݻ ѡ߬,

ӿԫ-ѡ߬, ӵ 󿽿ᵿ 2) ݻ Կ ߡ

󿽿ᵿ.

߬Ѽ ҽ ݻտ.

I. XXX-XII .

Ἣԡ ᡡ ᡡ߬ ҽ Ӽӫ 3000-

1200 . ẽ ԫ ߬Ӵ ѡ. ӿ, ޿޿ߴ

ԡѡѺ ߬ ӫ Ҭѻ ѡ 󴺿 Ѭ

, ߼Ӵ ԫѡ.

櫺ѽ Ѵѽ Ѭ ݻտ ӫ ߡ Ԭ

ޫ ݬ߻ӿѡ ᡿. 䫽 Ѫ ԼԿ

ӫѡ Ѽ ա߬ ᡿, 󫽿޿ ѽѡ ؽ ޿ӫ

߻ѵ὿ӫᡡ Ѽ߽ѡ ӫ. ώ 󬽯Ὣ

ԫ ߫Ѽӡү ( 1083) . Ѯڿ ὿

ᬪ , 󿡵, ӫ ԫ, Ἣӫ ѽѺ ޽

ѽӡ ѽ. 櫺᡿ ߻ ᡿ ӫ, Ҫ XVII-

XVI . Ѭ ὿ ݽѬ իӫޫ ὿ ӿѼ ѡ ӫ

ѽ. ӫ Խ὿ , Ҫ ԫ .

Կ ѽ Խ὿ ᵿ Ӽ ߻ѡ.

⫡ӡ ѽ ᬪ ѽү 񡫼 ѡ ߽ټ

Ӽ߬ ӫἿ, ӫ޿ߴ ẽ Ҭ.

ӿѡѡ ӡ , ԡ XXIII ., ߻߫Ὣ

߫᡿ ᡿, ӿ ѡ ߿ ѽѬ

Դ ԡ. , ߡٮ ߻ Ҫ II . ߫ԫ

ߡ 󫺫. ӿ ѡ,

߻޿ߴ Ӵѡ, ӿѡ ᡬ ԫѡ ԫ.

ӿ Ԭ ӿѡ ԫӡ-ӽ ӿ߻߫ѡ.

Կѡ ѡӡ ߽ Ѵ ߡ ӿү ߫ᡡ XVI-XII .

ӫ ӡ. ߫ѡ ѽ ᡿

󽿬 ԫ ԫ, ӫѡ ӿ ߫Ҫѡ ᮡ ߿Ѽ

ߡѡ ѻԴ ѡ, ƿӿ 1250- .

ᬫѡ ա߬ ᡿ ӫ ޿ӫ

Ӵ ԡ ѽ߬ ի, ߻ѵ὿ӫᡡ

ޡ Ѽ߽ ٽ ߡ ѡ߿ ݬ߬ Կ .

߫ Կѡ ԽὫ . տѬӡ ἴԡ Ӭ

὿ ѡ ѡ ѽү ѡ

ᡡѬ߫ տ. Ҽѡ ӿ߬ ӵ XIX-XVI .

Ἷ. ᬫ ӡ, ԫ ڿ ӿ߬ ӵ ٽ

Ҽѡټ ԫѡѼ ᪿԫ Ѽѽ.

ꡫ ӫѡ տѬӡ ߽ 󽴯 ӵ ӿ

Ѯ. ߡ Ѫ ѡ ӫ - ӫ, ᬪ ԫӴ

񿵿ٮ Ӵ . ġ ߫ԫ Ѯ (ӫ񫼫),

(񫼫) ټ Ѯ .  ӫ

ٽ ڿѡ ڡټ ѡټ ѡἿ ߬ ԫڿ

Ѽ 5-8 . ѡ Խ տѬԫӫ, ߫޿

Ҽѡ ҽ ߬ ӫ, .

Ѯ߬ 񫻫 Կѡ ߬.

ẫѼ ߫ѡٮ ӫٮ ѽٮ Ѭ ޡ

ѡ ѡ һ ᡿. ӫ ӿѡ Ҭ,

Ѻ ἡ Ἣ, ӫ߻߿ ѡ ߽Ѯ޿ .

ӫԴѡ XX-XII . ӫ Ὣ ߬ ẫ ӫ߻߿.

II . .. 񿵿ٮ ѫӿ߬ ӡѡ ӿԴ ٽ

񫻫ѡ Կ ߻὿, Դ ᡡټ ߬ Ἷ

үѼ Ѭ. ѮѼ, XIX-XV ., Դ

ẫߵ Կ ὿Կ߬ Կ, ߻ӫ ѡ,

ԡ ߬ү ҡ. 䫽 ԼԿ, ԫ Ѭԫ ᮫

߽ Ӭ ѡ 񿵿, Ԭ ӿүڿ

ẫ ѡ.

* * * * * * *

ӫ ѡ ӫ߫ ӫ󿽫 ӿ 󡿼᡿

߬ ѽѬ ѴѽԿ. Դڿ ӿӫ 󽴯ߴ

ԡ ӫ߻߿ ǬӫԿ, ߻ѡ ߬

Ἷ. ߫ѡ ᪡ ѿ ѡ, ԫ ӿ

Խ ҽ ؽ XXX-XII . 񿵿 Ѽѡ Ѯ

ҽ. ߫ ӫ߿ 󫽴 񫪡

߽ ѡ ӫ󫺺ѡ ӫ ԫԿ ᡫ

߽Կ ӡѡԿ. ߽ ߬ III . ԡ

Ѽ ἴԡ, Ӵڿ Դ 񫪡 ѡԿ, ԫ XX-

XII . ѡ 񫪡 Խߴ ҼѡѼ Ӽ ߫

ӿӫ ᡿ ѬԿ Կ. ߫ѡ

ӿѽ 󡿼᡿ ߬ ѡѼ ѽѬ Ѽѡ

ế Ѽ ߫Ѯ. ӿ ԫ 񫪡

὿ ߬ ѽѬ, ߻ӫ ѡ

󫻿߿, ߬ҽ, ԫԿ Կ. ӿѽ, ԫ

Ӵ ἴԡ ߬ Կ ѡ ѽѬ.

ᡡ Ѭ, ӫ, ի 񿵿

ӡ , 󬽯 ߬Ậ, ߡ, ߡ.

ѡѡѼ ѡ ߽ Ὣ ӫ Կ ӫ񡫮 ݺ-

ݻ, ӫ߽ Ѵ ӫ Ѽѡ.

II . ݻ߬ 񿵿 Ѭ ߽, 󿽿

ӫ߿ -߬ѽ, . Ҫ XVII-XII .

ԡ ԫ ᡴ ߬᡿ ߫Ѽѡ ᪡Ѯ޿ ԫӿ߬

߫Կ. ԫ ѡ ѽὫ ݽ Ѯ

ԫӿ, Ҽ޿ ԡ Ӽ ߫᡿ ү

ѡӡү 񿵿 ӫԴѡ Կ ߴ ԫ, ٽ

ỿ IX-VIII .

XIV-XIII . ݻ߬ ߽ ߫ٮ ߬ ߫

󫿼 ߻ѵټ Ἷ Һ٬ ߻ѡ,

Կիӡټ Ẽӫ-Ѭӫ, ޿ӡټ ߫ ԫ ӡ

ݻԫ, ѡ ѽ Ӽҽ. ԡ ѼὫ

߻߫Ὣ ӫ ѬԿ󡫼 ӫѡ, ԫ ӫ

Ӫ Ѯ ἴԿ.

ӫ Կ߬ ᡡ Ѭ ѽү ݻ߬

ݼ "꽿" "Ѵ" - ڿߴ ἴԡ ӫ .

ݼ ԡߴߴ ԫӿ߬ ᡿ ի Ѯ߬ ߬

߽ 1240. .. ӫ߬ .

ԼԿ, ԫ ݼ ѽ ߫ ݻ

Կ߬ ѵ XVIII-XII . 񿡴 ߿

ѡ ẫ, ѡ 񫽯. ߫

ӡ ߬ Ѵ, ٮ ѽѬ

ӫ Ѯ , ߼Ӵ ѽѡ , ߴ

ѡټ ᡡѮ ѵ ӫү ҽ.

ū ѡ , ԡ 񿵿 Ѭ Ѽ

Ѽѡ ᡿ ᬪ ӫ ԫӿ߬, ѡὫ߬

߬ ᡿. ġ ٽ ޿ӫ ԡ ԡ 󻽫

VII-VI ., 󬽯 ߻ӫᡴߴ ԫ ѡ

.

ƣ

ſѡ ߬ ҽ XXII-XII . ᡿ѡү ӫ.

ӫ , ѽ ؽ Ѫ ὿ ѽ

ӿҡ ỿ߿, ԡ Ҫ ԫӫ III . ٮ

ԫ ԫ߬ ѽ Կ. ӿԴ Ѭԫ

ᬿ, Ѽ, ߫὿ 󽿴Ѽ ߬ ӫ߬

, 󫺡 IV . ūѻѡ Ӽ ᬫ һӫ὿,

ԫ ߽. ᬫ ߽ (Ѯ) ,

߽ߴ Ҫ 1700 ., ߴ , ԫӫ ߿

ߴ ᡡټ.

ū߽ 1500 . ؽ ٽ Ӽ ѡԿ -

߽ . ġ 󬽯Ὣ ᬫ ߽ ,

߬ ߴԬ ᬫ, ᬪ Ѭԫ ᬿ Ѯ

ӿҡ . Ѽ , , ߡ ߴԿ

߽ѡ. ỿ߿ ߽ټ ѽ -ѪѼ ߽ ,

ᬫ ѡԿ ὿ ӫ: ߽, ѽѡ

߻ѵټ ᬫ ӫ, ὿ ӿټ ,

ѽ Ѭ ߡ὿ Ἷ Ἷ. Ѭ Կ

, ٵ὿ ἡ, ὿ ߬

ӡἿ ߫.

Ѯ߬ ٽ һ ẫᡡټ ߻ѵ὿. ὿

߽Ҫѽ ߬ ӵ ᬫ-ԫ ߽ ڿ ӫ.

f

ѽ ᡡѮ ѵ ү ӫ Ἷ ѡ ߽

ݽ.

߬ ѽ, ߴ ӿԿ ѽ,

߽ ѽѬ "߿", ԫ ӿӫ,

߫ѡ ߫᡿, , Ѽ ߴ,

Ѯ󿴼 󽴯 ӫ ᡿, Ѽ ޡү,

ԫ ի , Ԭ ի. ԡ ѽѬ

ӿӫ ԫ , ᬫ ԫߴ ѽ

߽ [N.1, .1, . 184].

ạӡ ߿ ӿӫ Ӵ ߫ ,

ԫټ ٽ ᡫ ᡿, . ؽ߬

Խߴ , ӿѼ ߫ᡴ Ѯ޿ ݻտ

᡿ Ѽѡ ӫ ӫ. ӫԴѡ XXX-XII .

ѽ ѡ ѽѡ ѵ ӻѽ ѡѡ.

߬ѽټ ᡿Ѽ ὿ ,

Ӵ޿ ߿ ӿӫ. ߫ Կ ѽү ( Ѽ,

ԫ " ս"), ү ӫѼ Կ ѽ

ԡ . ߫ӫὫ Ҫ߬ , ߽὿

ԫӫѻѡ . ҽԫ Ӵ 󬽯὿ ӿѡ ӫ,

ԫӪѡ ӫ߿ ӿ ᡵ. ѽ ѽѡ

ӿ, ѡ ԫ , ӿѼ ߽Ҫ ߿Ἷ

Կ ߡ ߿.

ẫ᡿ ᡡѬ߫ ߽ իү ,

ԫ ߽ ѡ. 櫫 ݽ߬

(ѫ) ѽѡү ᡿ᵿү Ҭ.

ӫ󫺺ѡ ӫ ӿ߫Ὣ ѻ ԡѡ Ѫ Ἷ, ի

Ѽ, ԫ Ѵ ѽ ߬ ԫ. ūԫ Ľ,

὿ , իټ ٽ , ѵ Ѯ,

޿ Ѽ ӫ. ūѡ Ѽ ѡ

ᡡݽ߬ ѫ ѽ ߻ѵ ѡ ҡ. Ѯ߬

ݻ, ߫᡿޿ ѡ ᡿ ᡡݽ߬ ,

ӿڿ ԫ ߬ ޽ѡ ߬ ӿԿ߬

ѽѮ: ի , ӿڿ ԫ

, ᬪ Ԭ ߽Կ.

ӫѡ ߬ ᡡ Ѯ߬ ݻ ѻӿ

ѽټ Ѽѡ, 񿼫 ὿ ѡ Ѵ ᡿

߿ ӿӫ. ߽Ѽ Ӵ ѽ

ᬫԫ Կ ѡ߬ ӫ. ӡ ԫ

߬ Ѵ Ѻᮡ ếѽ ߻ӫ񿽫 Ӫڿ

߿ ѽ ӫѽѽ -ӫѽѮ.

II. " "

(XI-IX .)

ӵ 󿽿ᵿ ӿԫ-ѡ߬ ݻտ ߫޽ ԫӿ߬ ߵѡ ӿ

, ӫߡѡ ԫѽ ӿӡ

XII . ػ Կ 󿽿ᵿ ߴ Ѻ ӿ

󿡫 ԫԿ.

ᬿ ẫ, ԫ ѽٮ Ѽѡٮ "ẫ",

ѿѪ ӫ: ᬫ ԫ ᡿ ԫ ӫ߬ Ѻ

( "Ѽ Ѭ") Ѽ ӫ

ԫӿ߬ Կ ߬ ? ٽ ѫạټ ԫ,

߫񿡿޿ ի ԫӿ߬ ݻտ 󿽿ᵿ, ,

ӫ, ѽ Ѯ ӫ?

ѫ߬ ߽᡿ ߽ 󫽿 ٴߡ 񽿡

ޡ ӫ, Ѫԫ ѡ߬ 󿽿ᵿѮ Ѫ

XIII-XII ., ᬪ ӫ߽ ߡ һ ߽үڿ

ӿ. ߬ ѡѼ ԫ ӫ ٽ ѻ߿,

Կ ߡ ᮫ ӿ ӫ󡫮 ѵ ѡ

Ѽ ѡ߬ ӿ (1125-1025 .). ߡ Խѽ

- ӿ ҽ, ԫӫ

߬὿ Ѻ ߡѡ ѡ ӫ ߡ󡫮 ѽѡ

ѵ ԫ Ѻ һ ӫѽ ߿ . ޿

ѽ ѡ߬ ӫ ӫ Ἣ Ѻ Խѡ.

ġ ѡ Ӽ, Ѫ Ӽ, ѡ ݽѼѡӡ

. ӫ߻߿ ᮡ ӿԿ ếѽ. 󿽫,

ԫӴߴ Կ ߻὿ - Ѽ ݽѼѡԫ ѬԿ

, ҡ߽ᡡ ѡ߬ ߬.

߽ѡ ѽ ώ, ޿ ԫ ӿ, ᮡ

ѽ. һ , ӿ Ҫ, ߴ ᮡ .

ѫ ѽ ѽ ӫ ҽ ѵ. Ѽ, ѽѡ

ѵ Ὣ ӫ߬ Ԭ ώ, Ѫ ӫ,

ԫ XII - XI . ߡ󡫮 Ѯ

߬ ӿ. ۴ߡѡ ԫ ߽, -񿼫, ߬

ԫ ߫ԫ ޡ , ԫӫ Ὤ߬ ѵ

ѡ߬ ӿ. Ѻᡡ ޡ

ԫ ߻޿ ԫټ ѡ Ἷ

ώ, ߬ ڿ ١Ҫѡ ٽ Կ Ѫ ӫѮ ݬ.

, Կ ԫ Ἣ Ѽ ѵ 󿽿 ѽ

ѽѺ. Ἣ ӿ ԡߴߴ ӫѡ ի ӫ

Ѯ ѽѺټ Ἷ.  񻫽, ԫ ԫӫ XI

. ա Ԭ ѽѺ ᬫ-ԫ ѻѡ ٽ Ҫ ѡ Ἷ

ѬἿ. ᬫ ѽѺ ӿ ٽ ᮡ Ѽ߽ѡ

߻ ԫټ ώ ѽѡ

. ڿ ԫ ѡ ٽ ѽ X ԫԿ.

Խѽ ѡ߬ ӿ ᬽ

޿ѽ 񿵿 ѡ߬ ݻտ. ߻ӫѡٮ

ѡ߬ Ѽ ߻߫ իӫѡ ӡ ӫ ߡߴ

ټ իӫѡ ڿ () ӫ .

ӿ , ӿ Կ, ѫԿ,

ӿ, ߴ ٮ - Ѽᵿ ߫ү

Ѯ իӫѡ ӡ. ԫ -ᬿ ߽ һѡ

񿵿 ѡ߬ (߻үڿ ߻߫ ѡ

ѡ߬ү ݻ ٽ һѡ; һѡ ߴ

ݻ߬).

ǡὫٮ ѡ߬ 񿵿 ߴ ҽ.

һ ߬ Կ, {޿ ѡ߬ү

ݻ, Ѽѡ ( ӿӡ IX-VIII .),

ү ᬿ ԫ ٽ ߽ ҽԫ ѴѽԿ: Ԭ

ӫѬ, Կ Ԭ, Ἷ. ү ߿ᵿ,

ѽүү Ἷ᡿ ѽ , ѫ Ҫ,

ԡԿ, ѽ, ѽ, Կ Ἣ Ѭԫ

. ߬ѡ ߫ ԫ ӿ,

᡿ 񿵿 Ӽ ߬ ӿ, ߴ,

Ὣ ӫԴѡ ӿ.

᪡Ѯ޿ ԫӫ, ߻߫޿ ߬ѡѡ ѡ߬ ҽӡ

񿵿, Ѻ߽, 񫽪 ߴ Ѻ ӫ ߡ󡫮

ѽѡ ѵ. ޿ߴ XII . ԫ

ѽѡ ޿ ߬ ԫӪѡ ᮫

ӫ񫽪ߴ ᬪ ѡ߬ ӿ.

ѵ 󽴯 ޿ ѡ߬ ѽѡ, ޿,

, ٽ ԫ ѽ. ԫӿ ѽѡ ѡ߬

ѽѮ ӫ ߴ ݻ߬ , 󿽫, ߽

ѽ . ūԿ ߡᡡ ѽѡ ѡ߬

ӿ, ߽ ѡ ѽ, ߻ߴ Ѭԫӫ ѡ

ѡ߬ ҿ, ԫ ԫ Ѽѡ, -񿼫, ӡ

ԫӫ.

ūҮ, ᬫ ӿ ԫӿ ѵ ừ

ѡԫ Ҭ߬ ᡿ ӿԿ󡫮 ݽ߬ Ѽѡ

ѻټ ѡ ԫ, ӫ߬

ѡ ޡѼ 2.

߽ ߴ ݬừӫ Կ ߿ԫ ҽӡ һ

һү Ѽ ѻѡ ѡ ߫-

ݬ߬ ԡѡ, Կ ѿѪ 񫽪 Ѽ ӿ, ԫ

XII-XI . ߬ ٽ ӫѡ Ѭ ,

ԡڿ ӫ , , ߡ ӡҽ ԫ ի񡫮

, ԫӫ -ԫ (w XVII ԫԿ) Ὣ ᡫѡ

ѡ߬ 󿽿ᵿ.

III. 1 (VIII-VI .)

ƣ

񡿼 ᪡ ԫӫ ߬ ҽ VIII-VI .

ߴ ߿Ѽ ѡԿ. ǽԡ , Կ

ῼᡡ , ٽ ߽

ѡ߬ ݻտ: ߫ԫ 24 ᬫ, ٮ ԫ ѽ

ᡫѡ Կ߬ ѡ. ߽ ѡ߬ ,

Կ ݻտ ӫ, ߬ ٽ

һ Ѽ ѡټ, ի޿ Ἤү ߵ-

ӫ߿Ὣ, ԫ ѻ ᡫߴ ڿ ԫѼ

, ߬ ٮ ٬Ἷ ѡ.

Խ ߽ , ԫӫ ߻Ὣ ټ ẫ

ѡ ԡ ỿѮ , 󫺼, ᬫ-ԫ ѻѡ ߫ѡ

ѽ Ѭԫ, ߿Ѽ ѡԿ 󽴽 ߫ Կ

: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5




2009 .